Agricultural Mushrooms Business
Mushrooms contain more protein than
fruits & vegetable. Mushrooms also have cholesterol. Apart from their
protein content, mushrooms can also be high in certain vitamins like B, C,
vitamin D, riboflavin, thiamine nicotinic acid. Also an excellent source of
iron, Potassium, and potassium along with folic acid, a component known for
improving the blood and avoidance deficiencies. Mushroom recommended as a
health food by Food and Agricultural Organisation of United Nations.
In India, a marginal farmer and small
manufacturing units produce Fifty percent of mushroom and the remaining
mushroom produce by industrial institutions. There are two types of mushroom
growers in India, seasonal farmers produce in small scale. While commercial
mushroom framer who takes production continue entire year in large scale. The
seasonal button mushroom growers are restricted to temperate regions like
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu, and Kashmir, hilly areas of Uttar Pradesh, hilly areas
in Tamil Nadu and North Eastern areas
where farmers take 2-3 plants of button mushrooms at a year.
To commercial mushroom farming, required
heavy expenditure on the building infrastructure, purchase of machinery and
equipment, raw materials, labour and energy. In India there are various
government & NGO organization provide, provide mushroom cultivation
training. However, NRCM is pioneer institute provides training. Also Indian
government promoting mushroom cultivation hence they give subsidy under a
different scheme like national horticulture board, Ministry of food processing, Agricultural and
Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA).
To start mushroom farming following
Factors have to be considered to become successful in commercial mushroom production
mushroom farm should be closer to the house of the farmer for successful
Participation and monitoring purpose.
of lots of water in the farm.
accessibility to raw materials at competitive prices in the region.
access to labour at more affordable prices.
of power at competitive prices, as electricity is a significant input in
farm should be from industrial pollutants such as chemical fumes.
should be provision for sewage disposal.
- There should be provision for future
growth in the farm.
start White Button Mushroom Farming Follow These Steps:-
In India, the
favourable season for mushroom cultivation is October to march. Cultivation
Procedure has five main steps.
- Harvesting of Crop.
Mushroom growing process start
form Spawn preparation. Spawn is planting material for mushroom cultivation
that is it is a seed of mushroom. For the preparation of mushroom spawn
required greater technical skill & investment mostly mushroom spawn produce
large institute. Mushroom grower import spawn from the renowned
source. Good Qualities mushroom spawn has following qualities.
- The spawn
should be rapidly growing in the compost.
- Provide early
pruning following casing.
- High yielding.
- It must create
the greater grade of mushroom.
Compost is an artificially prepared
growth medium from which mushroom can derive essential nutrients necessary for
growth. There are two primary methods for compost preparation:
Short Method takes less time to prepare
compost than longer method. Short Method requires more capital and resources than
longer method. The compost made by the short method is suitable for high
yielding mushroom production.
This is an outdoor procedure and takes
around 28 days in its conclusion with a total of seven turnings.
Materials are required for the longer
method is as follows.
| Wheat |
| 300 |
| Wheat |
| 15 |
| calcium |
| 9 |
|Urea|| 4 |
| Muriate |
| 3 |
|Superphosphate|| 3 |
|Gypsum|| 20 |
To Prepare Compost:- The mixture of wheat straw or paddy
straw is placed for 1-2 days (24-48 hours) on the floor and spray water several
times in a day with a fixed time interval.
In this stage, the above Ingredient
except Gypsum is mixed well and make a 5-feet-wide, 5-foot-high stack. With
wooden box help or any other equipment in grow room. The length of the stack
depends on the amount of material, but the height and width should not be more
or less than the measurements written above and it kept as it is as for five
days. Water is spray as per the requirement of lower moisture in the outer
layers. The temperature of this stack in about two to three days gets around
65-70 ° C, which is a good sign.
Compost prepared by Short method gives
the high-quality product, and there is very little chance of infections.
| Wheat |
| 1000 |
| Chicken |
| 600 |
| Wheat |
| 60 |
|Urea|| 15 |
|Gypsum|| 50 |
This method is complete in two stages:
- Mix Wheat straw with chicken manure and
spray water. First turning start on the fourth day and create 45cm high heap.
- The seventh day start second turning
wheat bran, urea and gypsum are add mix thoroughly and maintain inner
temperature of the compost in between 70-75 ° C.
- third turning start on the eighth day
- The tenth day, compost is a transferred
toward pasteurization tunnel and start second phase indoor composting.
In this stage, pasteurization Process
carried out in a closed environment. Fill Compost in the pasteurization hole
and the moment the compost at the hole has stuffed the doors, and new air
damper is appropriately closed, and the blower is placed on for recirculation
of air @ 150-250 cubic meter/ 1000 pound compost/ hour.
The stage II indoor composting procedure
is complete in 3 phases:
heating point: - After about 12-15 hours of mulch
filling, the temperature of compost begins climbing, and after 48-50° C is got,
it needs to be kept for 36-40 hours together with the venting system.
Ordinarily, such temperatures are achieved by self-production of heat from the
compost mass with no steam injection.
heat Point: - Increase the warmth of compost to 57-58° C by
self-production of heat from parasitic activity if it’s not obtained. Injecting
the live steam at the majority chamber and keep for 8 hours to guarantee
effective pasteurization. New air introduced by launching of the fresh air
damper into 1/6 or even 1/4 of its capacity and air socket also is exposed to
the identical extent.
peak heat Point: - Lower the temperature slowly to 48-52 °C and keep
until no indications of ammonia have been found in compost. This can take 3-4
times in a balanced formula. After the mulch is free of ammonia, complete clean
air is brought on by opening the damper to the utmost capacity and cool the
compost down to about 250C that’s considered as the favourable temperature for
The seeds are a mix of the compost. Before seeding, wash the utensils used in
seeding and seeding in 2% formalin solution and wash the hands of the person
working in the seedling with soap so that any infection can be avoided. After
this, add seed to 0.5 to 0.75 %, that is, 100 kg G 500-750 gm of seeds are
sufficient for ready compost.
The Importance of casing soil would be
to keep the moisture content and exchange of pollutants inside the top layer of
the compost which assists in the correct development of the mycelium. The pH of
this casing soil should be 7.5-7.8% and have to be free of any disease.
Harvesting of crop:-
Mushroom Pinhead initiation starts after
10-12 days and mushroom crop harvested in 50-60 days. Harvest Mushrooms by
light twisting without bothering the casing soil and when the harvesting is
finished then fill the gap on beds with fresh, sterilized casing material and
spray water. The crop should be harvested before the gills available because
this might diminish its quality and market worth.